Selected References:

  • Auger N, et al. 2017. Risk of congenital heart defects after ambient heat exposure early in pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect; 125(1):8-14.
  • Botto LD, et al. 2013. National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Congenital heart defects after maternal fever. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 210(4):359. e1-359.e11.
  • Chambers CD, et al. 1998. Maternal fever and birth outcome: a prospective study. Teratology. 58:251-257.
  • Chambers CD 2006. Risks of hyperthermia associated with hot tub or spa use by pregnant women. Birth Defects Reseach (part A) 76:569-573.
  • Dreier JW, et al. 2014. Systematic review and meta-analyses: fever in pregnancy and health impacts in the offspring. Pediatrics.133(3):e674-688.
  • Duong, et al. National Birth Defects Prevention Study. 2011. Maternal use of hot tub and major structural birth defects. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 91(9):836-841.
  • Edwards MJ, et al. 1995. Hyperthermia and birth defects. Reprod Toxicol 9(5):411.
  • Graham JM Jr, et al. 1998. Teratogen update: gestational effects of maternal hyperthermia due to febrile illnesses and resultant patterns of defects in humans. Teratology; 58:209-21.
  • Harvey MAS, et al. 1981. Suggested limits to the use of hot tub and sauna by pregnant women. CMAJ 125:50.
  • Hashmi, SS et al 2009. Maternal fever during early pregnancy and the risk of oral clefts. Birth Defects Research (part A) 88:186-194.
  • Keister, et al 2008. Strategies for breastfeeding success. Am Fam Physician 78(2): 225-232.
  • Kerr S, Parker SE, et al. 2017. Preconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake and the risk for neural tube defects.  Annals of Epidemiology 27:777.
  • Layde PM, et al. 1980. Maternal fever and neural tube defects. Teratology 21:105.
  • Lawrence RM and Lawrence RA (2001). Given the benefits of breastfeeding, what contraindications exist? Pediatric Clinics of North America 48(1):235-251.
  • Lipson A, et al. 1985. Saunas and birth defects. Teratology 32:147.
  • Lyndberg MC, et al. 1994. Maternal flu, fever, and the risk of neural tube defects: A population based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 140(3):244.
  • Milunsky A, et al. 1992. Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects. JAMA 268(7):882.
  • Moretti ME, et al. 2005. Maternal hyperthermia and the risk for neural tube defects in offspring: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol.16:216-219. NCRP. 1983. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No 74, Bethesda, MD, 72.
  • Nybo Anderson, AM 2002. Fever in pregnancy and risk of fetal death: a cohort study. Lancet 360:1152-1556.
  • Ridge BR and Budd GM. 1990. How long is too long in a spa pool? NEJM 323(12):835.
  • Sass L, Urhoj K et al. 2017 Fever in Pregnancy and the Risk of Congenital Malformations: a Cohort Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 17:413
  • Sandford MK, et al. 1992. Neural tube defect etiology: Evidence concerning maternal hyperthermia, health and diet. Dev Med Child Neurol 34:661.
  • Thonneau P et al. 1998. Occupational heat exposure and male fertility: a review. Human reproduction 13(8):2122-2125.
  • Warkany J. 1986. Teratogen Update. Hyperthermia. Teratology 33:365.
  • Werenberg Drier J, Nybo Andersen AM, et al. 2014. Systematic Review and Meta-analyses: Fever in Pregnancy and Health Impacts in the Offspring. Pediatrics 133(8):e675
  • Wertheimer N and Leeper E. 1986. Possible effects of electric blankets and heated waterbeds on fetal development. Bioelectromagnetics 7:13.