Selected References:

  • Broussard CS, et al. 2011. National Birth Defects Prevention Study.. Maternal treatment with opioid analgesics and risk for birth defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 204(4):314.e1–e11.
  • Edwards JE, et al.. 2003. Hydromorphone transfer into breast milk after intranasal administration. Pharmacotherapy. 23(2):153-8.
  • Fishman B, et al. 2019. Pregnancy outcome following opioid exposure: A cohort study. PLoS One 14(7): e0219061.
  • Larson JJ, et al. 2019. Cognitive and behavioral impact on children exposed to opioids during pregnancy. Pediatrics 144(2): e20190514.
  • Lind JN, et al. 2017. Maternal use of opioids during pregnancy and congenital malformations: A systemic review. Pediatrics 139(6):e20164131.
  • Sinatra RS, et a;. 2002. Continuous epidural infusion of 0.05% bupivacaine plus hydromorphone for labor analgesia: an observational assessment in 1830 parturients. Anesth Analg. 94(5):1310-1311.
  • Yazdy MM, et al. 2013. Periconceptional use of opioids and the risk of neural tube defects. ObstetGynecol. 122(4):838–844.