Selected References:

  • Almgren M, et al. 2009. Population-based study of antiepileptic drug exposure in utero–influence on head circumference in newborns. Seizure. 18(10):672-5.
  • Clark CT, Wisner KL. 2018. Treatment of Peripartum Bipolar Disorder. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 45(3):403-17.
  • Diav-Citrin O, et al. 2017. Is it safe to use lamotrigine during pregnancy? A propective comparative observational study. Birth Defects Res. 109:1196-1203.
  • Dolk H, et al. 2008. Does lamotrigine use in pregnancy increase orofacial cleft risk relative to other malformations? Neurology; 71:714-722.
  • Dolk H, et al. 2016. Lamotrigine use in pregnancy and risk of orofacial cleft and other congenital anomalies. Neurology; 86(18):1716-25.
  • Harden CL, et al. 2009. Management issues for women with epilepsy. Epilepsia; 50(5):1247-1255.
  • Hernandez-Diaz S, et al. 2014. Association between topiramate and zonisamide use during pregnancy and low birth weight. Obstet Gynecol. 123(1):21-8.
  • Hernandez-Diaz S, et al. 2017. Fetal growth and premature delivery in pregnant women on antiepileptic drugs. Ann Neurol. 82(3):457-65.
  • Holmes LB, et al. 2011. Fetal effects of anticonvulsant polytherapies. Arch Neurol; 68(10):1275-1281.
  • Khan SJ, et al. 2016. Bipolar Disorder in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Principles of Management. Curr Psychiatry Rep; 18(2):13.
  • Meador K, et al. 2011. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age. Brain; 134:396-404.
  • Meador KJ, et al, Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study Group. 2014. Breastfeeding in children of women taking antiepileptic drugs: cognitive outcomes at age 6 years. JAMA Pediatr; 168(8):729-36.
  • Newport DJ, et al. 2008. Lamotrigine in breast milk and nursing infants: determination of exposure. Pediatrics; 122(1):e223-31.
  • Nordmo E, et al. 2009. Severe apnea in an infant exposed to lamotrigine in breast milk. Ann Pharmacother;43:1893-7.
  • Ohman I, et al. 2000. Lamotrigine in pregnancy: pharmacokinetics during delivery, in the neonate, and during lactation. Epilepsia; 41:709-13.
  • Pariente G, et al. 2017. Pregnancy Outcomes Following In Utero Exposure to Lamotrigine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. CNS Drugs. (6):439-450.
  • Paulzen M, et al. 2015. Lamotrigine in pregnancy – therapeutic drug monitoring in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, and cord blood. Int Clin Psychopharmacol; 30(5):249-54.
  • Prakash C, et al. 2016. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes After Lamotrigine Use in Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis from an Urban Maternal Mental Health Centre in New Zealand. Psychopharmacol Bull; 46(2):63-9.
  • Tomson T, et al. 2011. Dose-dependent risk of malformations with antiepileptic drugs: an analysis of data from the EURAP epilepsy and pregnancy registry. Lancet Neurol; 10(7):609-17.
  • Tomson T, et al. 2018. Comparative risk of major congenital malformations with eight different antiepileptic drugs: a prospective cohort study of the EURAP registry. Lancet neurol. 17(6):530-8.
  • Veiby G, et al. 2013. Early child development and exposure to antiepileptic drugs prenatally and through breastfeeding: A prospective cohort study on children of women with epilepsy. JAMA Neurol; 70:1367-74.
  • Veiby G, et al. 2015. Epilepsy and recommendations for breastfeeding. Seizure; 28:57-65.
  • Veroniki AA, et al. 2017. Comparative safety of anti-epileptic drugs during pregnancy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of congenital malformations and prenatal outcomes. BMC medicine. 15(1):95.
  • Wakil L, et al. 2009. Neonatal outcomes with the use of lamotrigine for bipolar disorder in pregnancy and breastfeeding: a case series and review of the literature. Psychopharmacol Bull; 42:91-8.