Selected References:

  • Amin R, et al. 2017. Editor’s Highlight: In Utero Exposure to Gadolinium and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Premature Infants. Toxicol Sci. 156(2):520-526.
  • Murata N, et al. 2016. Macrocyclic and Other Non-Group 1 Gadolinium Contrast Agents Deposit Low Levels of Gadolinium in Brain and Bone Tissue: Preliminary Results From 9 Patients With Normal Renal Function. Invest Radiol. 51(7):447-53.
  • Patenaude Y, et al. 2014. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the obstetric patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 36:349-55.
  • Ray JG, et al. 2016. Association Between MRI Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal and Childhood Outcomes. 316(9):952-61.
  • Rogosnitzky M, Branch S. 2016. Gadolinium-based contrast agent toxicity: a review of known and proposed mechanisms, Biometals. 29:365-376.
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). 2017. Committee Opinion No. 723. Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation. Obstet Gynecol. 130(4):933-934.
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2018. Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents. Available at:
  • Webb JA, et al, Members of Contrast Media Safety Committee of European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR). 2005. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation. Eur Radiol. 15:1234-40.