Selected References

  • Adams J and Lammer EJ. 1991. Relationship between dysmorphology and neuropsychological function in children exposed to isotretinoin “in utero”. In: T. Fujii and G. J. Boer (eds), Functional Neuroteratology of Short Term Exposure to Drugs. Tokyo: Teikyo University Press, pp.159-170.
  • Adams J and Lammer EJ. 1993. Neurobehavioral teratology of isotretinoin. Reprod Toxicol. 7(2):175-177.
  • Adams J. 1996. Similarities in genetic mental retardation and neuroteratogenic syndromes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 55(4):683-690.
  • Autret-Leca E et al. 2010 Isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy: assessment of spontaneous reports in France. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. 33(8):659-665.
  • Coleman, R and MacDonald D. 1994. Effects of isotretinoin on male reproductive system. Lancet 344:198.
  • Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. 1992. Retinoid therapy for severe dermatological disorders. Pediatrics 90:119-120.
  • Dai WS, et al. 1989. Safety of pregnancy after discontinuation of isotretinoin. Arch Dermatol 125:362-365.
  • Dai WS, et al. 1992. Epidemiology of isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy. J Am Acad Dermatol 26:599-606.
  • DiGiovanna JJ, et al. 1984. Etretinate: persistent serum levels of a potent teratogen. Clin Res 32:579A.
  • Goldsmith LA, et al. 2004. American Academy of Dermatology Consensus Conference on the safe and optimal use of isotretinoin: summary and recommendations. 1: J Am Acad Dermatol 50(6):900-906. [Erratum in: J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 51(3):348. dosage error in text.]
  • Lammer EJ, et al. 1987. Risk for major malformation among human fetuses exposed to isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid). Teratology 35:68A.
  • Lammer EJ, et al. 1985. Retinoic acid embryopathy. New Engl J Med 313:837841.
  • Lee SM et al. 2009. A case of suspected isotretinoin-induced malformation in a baby of a mother who became pregnant one month after discontinuation of the drug. Yonsei medical journal.50(3):445-447.
  • Loureiro KD et al. 2005 Minor malformations characteristic of the retinoic acid embryopathy and other birth outcomes in children of women exposed to topical tretinoin during early pregnancy. American journal of medical genetics. Part A. 136(2):117-121.
  • Mitchell AA. 1992. Oral retinoids: What should the prescriber know about their teratogenic hazards among women of child-bearing potential? Drug Saf 7(2):7985.
  • Nulman I. 1998. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of isotretinoin and its 4-oxo metabolite: implications for fetal safety. J Clin Pharmacol 38:926-930.
  • Recommendations for isotretinoin use in women of childbearing potential. 1991. Teratology 44:1-6.
  • Rosa FW. 1983. Teratogenicity of isotretinoin. Lancet 2:513.
  • Sladden MJ. What is the chance of a normal pregnancy in a woman whose fetus has been exposed to isotretinoin? Archives of dermatology.143(9):1187-1188.
  • Zakhem GA. 2019. Infertility and teratogenicity after paternal exposure to systemic dermatologic medications: A systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol Apr;80(4):957-969.
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