Selected References:

  • American Academy of Dermatology. Indoor tanning. Available at
  • Bareford D, Cumberbatch M, Derrick Tovey L. Plasma discolouration due to sun-tanning aids. Vox sanguinis. 1984;46(3):180-182.
  • Beaulieu RA, et al. 2013. Canthaxanthin retinopathy with visual loss: A case report and review. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med, Article ID 40901.
  • Lapunzina P. 1996. Ultraviolet light-related neural tube defects? Am J Med Genet 67:106.
  • Merck Index, 12th Edition, p. 3225.
  • Meadows M. 2003. Don’t Be in the Dark about Tanning. FDA Consumer Magazine 37:6.
  • United States Food and Drug Administration. 2015. Sunless tanners and bronzers. Available at
  • Yourick JJ, et al. 2004. Fate of chemicals in skin after dermal application: Does the in vitro skin reservoir affect the estimate of systemic absorption? Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 195:309-320.