Selected References:

  • Abe K, et al. 2014. Impact of planning of pregnancy in women with epilepsy on seizure control during pregnancy and on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Seizure 23(2):112-6.
  • Aydin B, et al. 2015. Olanzapine and quetiapine use during breastfeeding: excretion into breast milk and safe breastfeeding strategy. J Clin Psychopharmacol 35(2):206-8.
  • Barton S, et al. 2018. Memory dysfunction in school-aged children exposed prenatally to antiepileptic drugs. Neuropsychology 32:784-796. doi:10.1037/neu0000465.
  • Coban D, et al. 2010. Neonatal episodic hypoglycemia: a finding of valproic acid withdrawal. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2(2):92-4.
  • Deshmukh U, et al. 2016. Behavioral outcomes in children exposed prenatally to lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine. Neurotoxicol Teratol 54:5-14.
  • Diav-Citrin O, et al. 2009. Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to valproate: evidence of dose relationship in teratogenic effect. CNS Drugs 22(4):325-34.
  • Einarson A et al. 2009. Use and safety of antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy. J Psychiatr Pract 15: 183-92.
  • Harden CL, et al. 2009. Management issues for women with epilepsy – Focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): II. Teratogenesis and perinatal outcomes: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsia 50: 1237-46.
  • Jentink J, et al. 2010. Valproic Acid Monotherapy in Pregnancy and Major Congenital Malformations. N Engl J Med 362:2185-93.
  • Mawhinney E, et al. 2012. Valproate and the risk for congenital malformations: Is formulation and dosage regime important? Seizure 21(3):215-218.
  • Meador KJ, et al. 2012. Effects of fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: outcomes at age 4.5 years. Neurology 78(16):1207-14.
  • Meador KJ, et al. 2014. Breastfeeding in children of women taking antiepileptic drugs: Cognitive outcomes at age 6 years. JAMA Pediatr. 168:729-36.
  • Ornoy A. 2009. Valproic acid in pregnancy: how much are we endangering the embryo and fetus? ReprodToxicol 28: 1-10.
  • Shallcross R, et al. 2014. In utero exposure to levetiracetam vs valproate: development and language at 3 years of age. Neurology 82(3):213-21.
  • Smith, J et al. 2009. Sodium valproate and the fetus: a case study and review of the literature. Neonatal Netw 28: 363-7.
  • Sveberg L, et al. 2015. The impact of seizures on pregnancy and delivery. Seizure. 28:35-8.
  • Tomson T, et al. 2015. Valproate in the treatment of epilepsy in girls and women of childbearing potential. Epilepsia 56(7):1006-19.
  • Vajda FJ, et al. 2013. Dose dependence of fetal malformations associated with valproate. Neurology; 81(11):999-1003.
  • Vajda FJE, et al. 2019. Valproate-associated foetal malformations-Rates of occurrence, risks in attempted avoidance. Acta Neurol Scand 139(1):42-48.
  • Veiby G, et al. 2014. Fetal growth restriction and birth defects with newer and older antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. J Neurol 261: 579-588.
  • Veroniki AA, et al. 2017. Comparative safety of anti-epileptic drugs during pregnancy: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of congenital malformations and prenatal outcomes. BMC medicine 15(1):95.
  • Weston J, et al. 2016. Monotherapy treatment of epilepsy in pregnancy: congenital malformation outcomes in the child. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11:Cd010224.
  • Yerby MS, McCoy GB. 1999. Male infertility: possible association with valproate exposure. Epilepsia 40:520-1.
  • Yonkers KA et al. 2004. Management of bipolar disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psych 161:608-20.