This sheet is about exposure to lead during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your healthcare provider.
What is lead and where is it found?
Lead is a heavy metal. It can be found in many places, such as: soil, water, cosmetics, children’s & costume jewelry, old paint, plumbing, batteries, bullets, solders, and gasoline. Lead can leach out of pipes into drinking water. Living near metal smelters or mining wasters can result in exposure to lead. Some traditional or folk medications including Ayurvedic medicines from other countries can contain high amounts of lead. Some types of candy, particularly ones not made in the U.S.A. can also contain lead.
Some hobbies and jobs can lead to higher levels of lead exposure. Examples are: ceramics & pottery making, jewelry making, auto repair, printing, construction, stained glass work, art restoration, welding, finishing furniture, indoor target practice, or making bullets or fish lures. When lead paint is sanded or stripped, it makes dust that has lead.
In 1978, the U.S. government banned the use of paint containing lead, and the use of lead in gasoline around 1980. Even with attempts to limit sources of lead, lead can still be found in the ground and in water.
How does lead get into my body?
Lead can be absorbed by breathing lead dust into the lungs. It can also get into your body through the gut if you swallow lead particles. Only small amounts of lead get into the body through the skin. It is important to carefully wash your body, especially hands, if you have been around lead. This is to keep lead from getting into your mouth from your hands.
Because lead is found in many places in our environment, most people have small amounts of lead in their blood. When a person is exposed to lead over a long period of time or at a high level, the body will store lead in the bones and teeth. Lead can stay in the bones and teeth for many years. During pregnancy and breastfeeding, lead can leave bone and move back into the blood.
Is there anything I can do to reduce my exposure to lead?
Avoid exposure to any known sources of lead before and during pregnancy. If you are working with lead in your job or hobbies have your healthcare provider check your blood lead level.
If you are remodeling a home built before 1978, you could disturb paint that contains lead and it is not safe to do this work yourself (as a non-professional). Avoid this activity, and be sure that the people working on your home are following safe procedures to protect you and your family from lead exposure.
Water from public sources is regularly tested for lead. You can get information about your drinking water from your local board of health. Houses that use well water should have the water tested regularly for lead and other possible contaminants.
A diet poor in calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E can be associated with increased lead absorption. Therefore, it is important to eat a well-balanced diet and to take any recommended vitamin supplements.
How can I find out if I have lead in my body?
A blood lead test can be done to see how much lead is in your blood. However, this is not a routine blood test for all pregnant individuals. While most people will have some lead in their blood, levels greater than 5 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL) suggests that there is exposure at home or in the workplace that needs to be addressed and a search for the source of lead should be done. If you think you have been exposed to lead, talk to your healthcare provider to see if you should be tested.
I have lead exposure. Can it make it harder for me to get pregnant?
Studies have shown mixed results with some studies indicating that lead may make it more difficult to become pregnant while other studies have shown that lead, at the levels in the study, may not have had an effect on the ability to become pregnant.
Can lead in my body reach the baby?
Lead can cross into the baby. The amount of lead in the blood of the mother and baby are almost the same. It is not known how early lead can reach the developing baby in pregnancy, but reports have documented lead in a developing baby as early as the 13th week of pregnancy.
Does having/getting lead exposure increase the chance for miscarriage?
Miscarriage is common and can occur in any pregnancy for many different reasons. High levels of lead during pregnancy can cause miscarriage and stillbirth.
Does having lead exposure increase the chance of birth defects?
Every pregnancy starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a birth defect. This is called the background risk. Lead exposure in a pregnancy has not been associated with physical birth defects.
Would having lead exposure increase the chance of other pregnancy related problems?
Based on the studies reviewed, other pregnancy problems, such as low birth weight/poor growth, preterm delivery, and preeclampsia (pregnancy complications, such as high blood pressure, that usually happens after week 20) can also occur. Preterm delivery is birth before week 37 and low birth weight is weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2500 grams) at birth.
Does having lead exposure in pregnancy affect future behavior or learning for the child?
The most serious effects of high maternal lead levels on babies are effects on the developing brain, which can cause learning and behavior problems for the child.
Breastfeeding while I have lead exposure:
Lead levels in breast milk are usually lower than levels in mother’s blood. A mother should not stop breastfeeding unless her blood lead level is very high (40 mcg/dL or higher).
Lead may also be found in infant formula, mostly because of contaminated water. To prevent or reduce the chance of lead in formula, use bottled/distilled water or, if using tap water, allow it to run for three minutes before using. Be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about all of your breastfeeding questions.
If a male has exposure to lead, can it make it harder to get a partner pregnant or increase the chance of birth defects?
Lead in the body can reach the sperm. High levels of lead may cause changes in the shape, size, number and movement of the sperm. This may make it harder for him to get a partner pregnant. People who work with lead can bring lead dust home on their clothes, shoes, or other items. If a pregnant person handles these items, such as in doing laundry, there could be a direct exposure to lead. In general, exposures that fathers or sperm donors have are unlikely to increase the risks to a pregnancy. For more information, please see the MotherToBaby fact sheet Paternal Exposures at https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/paternal-exposures-pregnancy/.
How can I protect myself and my family from lead exposure after a hurricane or flood?
After a hurricane or flood, lead can be found in the floodwaters. You can prevent a harmful amount of lead from getting to you or your baby by following these safety measures:
- Follow public announcements that tell you if tap water is safe to drink or to use for cooking or bathing. If the water is not suitable to use, follow local instructions or use bottled water. Boiling does not remove lead.
- Flooded, private water wells will need to be tested after floodwaters recede. Contact your local or state health department for water testing.
- Speak with your healthcare provider to see if a blood test is needed.
- Walking in floodwaters in not likely to cause a large exposure to lead because only small amounts get through your skin.
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OTIS/MotherToBaby encourages inclusive and person-centered language. While our name still contains a reference to mothers, we are updating our resources with more inclusive terms. Use of the term mother or maternal refers to a person who is pregnant. Use of the term father or paternal refers to a person who contributes sperm.